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Hernia , colloquially known as hernia , is that the tissues or muscles that keep the organ in place are outward sliding, dislocated and protruded in its natural space. Although abdominal hernias come to mind when hernia is used alone, lumbar disc herniation, namely herniated disc and cervical disc herniation, ie neck hernia, are also common conditions in society.

What is a hernia?

Hernia, which negatively affects the daily life of a person, is defined as the emergence of a part of the internal organs, mostly a part of the intestine, out of its natural environment, creating subcutaneous swelling. Waist and neck region hernias occur as a result of the discs between the vertebrae losing their natural position.

What are the types of hernia?

The most common types of hernia with many types and varieties; abdominal, waist and neck hernias. Abdominal hernias are generally examined as inguinal, umbilical and surgical incision hernia. Untreated abdominal hernias grow over time due to pressure and the chance of treatment decreases. In waist and neck hernias, it affects the quality of life of the person negatively and manifests itself with symptoms such as loss of sensation, pain and weakness in the arms and legs as well as the hernia region.

What are abdominal hernias?

Abdominal hernias are the protrusion of the hard membranes called the muscle and fascia that form the abdominal wall from a weak point out of the abdominal cavity. Usually, as a result of weakening of the muscles in the abdominal wall, an organ or tissue emerges from this weak spot in the abdominal cavity and creates a hernia. Hernias can occur spontaneously, due to trauma and as a result of incisions in previously operated areas. It can be examined in three groups as inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, and surgical incision hernia.

What is an inguinal hernia?

It is a type of hernia that occurs with the increase of intra-abdominal pressure seen on the right, left or both sides of the groin area. Since the opening through which the spermatic cord, which is located on the anterior wall of the abdomen, and ligamentum rotundum, which is one of the ligaments holding the uterus in women, is weaker than the abdominal wall, the hernia mostly occurs in this area. Excessive straining as a result of chronic constipation, enlargement of the prostate in men, heavy lifting, straining to urinate, asthma and persistent cough due to chronic bronchitis are the most common causes of inguinal hernia that causes swelling under the skin as an indirect inguinal hernia and a part of the intestine. A direct inguinal hernia occurs on the inner side of this weak area, in the upper middle region of the abdomen. Hernia formation here also occurs with the increase of intra-abdominal pressure for similar reasons. In boys, it usually occurs in the abdominal cavity as a result of the testicles that complete their development in the abdomen coming down and return to their normal place, and if the area is large, a part of the intestines will slide into this area and form a hernia. However, if there is no large area left for the intestines to fit, a hernia may also occur as a result of fluid accumulation. The risk of hernia is generally seen in newborn men. The risk is higher in premature babies. Family history of hernia and being overweight are risk factors as it increases intra-abdominal pressure. People with a hernia previously have the possibility of developing a hernia on the other side of the groin.

What is an umbilical hernia?

There are 3 different veins in the umbilical cord, in other words the umbilical cord, that feed the baby in the womb. Umbilical hernia , after birth by connecting and It occurs when the umbilical region, which is strengthened by closing by the muscles, remains weak. When it occurs in infancy, a hernia may become visible by swelling during crying. In a few years, the hernia in babies can close by itself, but if it does not close, surgical intervention is required. Umbilical hernia may occur in individuals who reach childhood in cases where the navel is not fully closed or is excessively forced. Above the belly button, the adipose tissue covering the upper part of the intestines and a part of the intestine cause hernia formation. In adults, about 8% of those who present with hernia complaint are umbilical hernia. It is more likely to occur in overweight women who have given birth, men with a history of prostate, people with overweight or sudden weight loss, heavy lifting, and chronic cough. Even if there is no visible swelling or deformity, in some cases the hernia can be felt with the finger. Surgery is the only treatment option for an umbilical hernia in adults, and it is easier to operate when the hernia is in the initial stage and when it is small. The surgery can be done either closed or open, depending on the patient’s condition.

What is surgical incision hernia?

It is the type of hernia that occurs in the incision areas of previous abdominal surgeries.It may occur as a result of insufficiency and weakening of tissues after years. Incision hernias that can develop in more than one area; It can also be observed with the formation of swelling in the area of ​​the scar while standing, coughing or straining. However, as this type of hernia can grow rapidly, it should not be expected if such a situation is noticed. It is treated with open or closed surgery.

What causes a hernia?

  • Heavy lifting
  • Staying for a long time
  • Heavy work done using physical force
  • Surgical muscle cuts
  • Chronic cough
  • Fluid accumulation in the abdomen
  • Relief
  • Gaining weight fast
  • Pregnancy

What are the symptoms of a hernia?

Hernia symptoms vary according to the region where the hernia occurred. Generally, in hernias in the abdominal region, pain and swelling under the skin are seen due to tearing of the muscles. Although the pain decreases as the swelling grows, treatment becomes more difficult. In neck and lumbar hernias, in addition to symptoms such as weakness, pain and loss of sensation in the extremities, pain is also felt in the area of ​​the hernia.

How is hernia treatment?

The treatment method varies according to the region where the hernia occurs. In some cases, although exercise, physical therapy and drug therapy are used, surgical operation is performed in advanced hernias that do not respond to these treatment methods. If you have such pain, it is recommended that you see a specialist physician and have your checkups as soon as possible.


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Op. Dr. Akın Kocaoluk


Op. Dr. Akin Kocaoluk | Resume


He graduated from 19 Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine in 1998. He is currently continuing his active career in Turkish Red Crescent Altıntepe Medical Center.




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